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Guide to APA Style 7th Edition

H/T to Adam Williams at the Boston College Library for use of this guide, as well as contributions from Purdue OWL,, and the Himmelfarb Medical Library of George Washington University.

Citing Authors

One author:

  • (French, 2013)
  • French (2013)

Two authors:

  • (French & Sumatra, 2013)
  • French and Sumatra (2013)

Three or more authors:

  • (French et al., 2013)
  • French et al. (2013)


Citing a website within text can be tricky because a website may not have a traditional page number, author, or year. In this scenario, you can do the following:

  • If you can not determine the author or organization, use a short version of the title of the page.
  • If there is no date, use the abbreviation "n.d."
  • In place of a page number, give a name of the section of the website, or a paragraph number.


("What's new," n.d., para 2).

Citing a Citation or Quoting a Quote

Always go to the original source and avoid indirectly citing information. If the original source of the information is not available you can cite the information in the secondary source as follows.

  • Cite the name and year (Jackson, 1983) of the original source as cited in the secondary source (Smith et al., 2013). Only the secondary source (Smith et al., 2013 ) appears in your references page.


Jackson (1983, as cited in Smith et al., 2013) suggested that....


You should favor paraphrasing the findings and claims of other authors over quoting. Paraphrasing shows that you understand the information and that you have incorporated the work into your own thinking.

One author:

Policy advocates need to have a clear idea as to what kind of changes they would like to see in a specific agency, community, or within society as a whole (Jannsen, 1999).

Two authors:

Social work is a profession with a dual focus (Popple & Leighninger, 2011).

Direct Quoting

Use direct quotes sparingly and always include the page number where you found the quoted text.

“Just as in direct service, administrative, or community organizing practice, we become effective policy advocates only as we learn key concepts and develop pivotal skills” (Jansson, 1999, p. 19).

Make sure that Jansson's work is fully cited in your references page.